Reinforced concrete thesis
Design of Columns 90 6. Design of Foundations 7. A for design 11 Figure 3. D for beam 59 from robot structural analysis 58 Figure 4. D for beam 59 from robot structural analysis 71 Figure 4. D and S. D or flight 2 86 Figure 5. A Figure 7. The main purpose of structural design is to produce a safe, economic and functional building. Structural design should also be an integration of art and science. It is a process of converting an architectural perspective into a practical and reasonable entity at construction site.
Chan Chee, One of the important things to be considered in any construction is the cost effectiveness i. Often a times, constructions become uneconomical too expensive when too much emphasis is laid on the quality alone. Therefore there should be a balance between quality control and cost effectiveness. The codes and standards that impact modern building construction are constantly in flux and changing, and it is difficult to keep up with copious changes and how they will impact building design.
In the structural design of concrete structures, Refereeing to standard code is essential. A standard code serves as a reference document with important guidance. The contents of the standard code generally cover comprehensive details of a design. These details include the basis and concept of design, specification to be followed, design methods, safety factors, loading values and etc. These codes and standards define the parameters in the reinforced concrete design process that affect the cost of materials.
This would include the dimensions X, Y, Z of the different reinforced concrete elements, the area of reinforcements and ratio of reinforcement limit values. Accurately Analyzed structures are important during the design phase to minimize the construction cost. Excellent designers must have the ability to organize and manage the process of design so with special consideration to cost effectiveness during the design process.
However the problem of cost ineffectiveness is becoming so rampant. Although lack of experience from the engineers also affects the design which eventually affect the cost. For this reason this research is dedicated to find out the process of assembling different building components under strictly followed recommendations of one of the aforementioned code i.
The main objectives of this study are: 1- To make analysis by ACI code in order to obtain the most safe and sound solution. The project focuses mainly design of concrete and reinforcement, the structure is a three storey building. This structure is intended to serve as a commercial building. The main reason why a three-storey structure is being adopted is that it does not involve calculation for the wind load, The code used is ACI And the selected software to used is Robot Analysis. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction of what to be encountered. Chapter 1 is a brief overview of the research background and the objectives of the study followed by the outline of thesis.
Chapter 2, which discusses the research methodology that was adopted for the research. The chapter deals with the definition of model for designing multi stories reinforced concrete multi-purpose building, which had built and consists of three floors. The properties of design model are shown in the first part of its chapter such as the dimensions, the properties of materials concrete, steel , the unit weight of concrete and blocks, and the values of loads dead load and live load which depends on the type of building.
Chapter 3 presents the general literature about slabs and proceeds with results of analysis of slabs by designing a sample element. Chapter 4 presents the general literature about beams and proceeds with results of analysis of beams by designing a sample. Chapter 5 presents the general literature about Stairs and proceeds with results of analysis of stairs by designing in detail. Chapter 6 presents the general literature about Columns and proceeds with results of analysis of Columns by designing a sample element.
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Chapter 7 presents the general literature about Foundations and proceeds with results of analysis of foundations by designing a sample. Chapter 8 summarizes the project results that have been carried out. The finding of the study is described. A future recommendation to extend the study is also proposed. The codes and standards that impact modern building construction are constantly in flux, and it is difficult at best to keep up with copious changes and how they will impact building design. For engineers and architects who is working with structural design.
BS part 1 gives recommendations for the structural use of concrete building and structures, excluding bridges and structural concrete made with high alumina cement. The aim of design is the achievements of an acceptable probability that structures being design will perform satisfactory during their intended life. With an appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformation of normal construction and use and have adequate durability and resistance to the effects of misuse and fire. The structure should be so designed that adequate means exist to transmit the design ultimate dead, wind and imposed loads safely from the highest supported level to the foundations British code, The design strengths of materials and design loads should be based on the loads and material properties as in the BS and as appropriate for the serviceability limit state SLS.
The design should satisfy the requirement that no SLS is reached by rupture of any section, by overturning or by buckling under the worst combination of ultimate loads. The American concrete institute standard , building code requirements for reinforced concrete, has permitted the design of reinforced concrete structure in accordance with limit state principles using load and resistance factors since A probabilistic assessment of these factors and implied safety levels is made, along with consideration of alternate factors values and formats.
A discussion of issues related to construction safety of existing structure is included.
Tension stiffening effects in reinforced concrete members
Working stress principles and linear elastic theory formed the basis for reinforced concrete design prior to , when the concept of ultimate strength design was incorporated in the ACI building code ACI 02 , Edward cohen, Because of the highly nonlinear nature of reinforced concrete behavior, the linear approach was unable to provide a realistic assessment of true safety levels Andrew Scanlon, The developers of ACI , who introduced the idea of load and resistance factors to account for uncertainties in both load and resistance.
Probabilistic methods were developed and refined during the late s in response to the need to consider variability and uncertainty, explicitly and rationally. Proposed formulations include code incorporation of explicit second moment probabilistic procedures.
The safety index positions the mean load effect to ensure attainment of the target reliability American code. The explicit second moment approach was not considered by ACI38 or other major code writing organizations. Edward Cohen, The meaning of the optimum cost of reinforced concrete building with some studies, which it is minimum quantity of concrete and steel in any construction or it is the minimum cost of the construction but the most studies explains the optimum cost by minimum quantity of concrete and steel in any construction.
Hence, the primary objective of economic analysis is to secure cost-effectiveness for the client. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to identify and to evaluate the probable economic An analysis is required from the viewpoint of the owner of the project when doing the proposal, the analysis can be evaluated the followings Ashworth A. Cost and safety are one of the important factors that will affect method of construction, quality of work, period of the construction and most of all, the success of a project.
It seeks to ensure the efficient use of all available sources to construction. Implementation of a construction projects is a complicated and complex process Neap H. S and Celik T. Phases of construction are divided into categories such as material, labor, plant, supervision, All disturbances regarding the cost must be detected periodically Popescu, The collection, analysis, publication and retrieval of designed information are very important to the construction industry.
Contractors and surveyors will tend, wherever possible, to use their own generated data in preference to commercially published data, since the former incorporate those factors which are relevant to them. Published data will therefore be used for backup purpose. The existence of a wide variety of published data leads one to suppose, that it is much more greatly relied on than is sometimes admitted Ashworth A. Brandon has classified these variables into two categories decisions Figure 2.
The proposed methodology is based on designing the building by software program Robot Structural Analysis with ACI Code, each code has different properties of concrete and steel ,such as the concrete compressive strength fc , the yield strength of steel fy ,the various combinations of the load, the allowable ratio for minimum and maximum reinforcement and other properties , in practice ,design of the elements are governed by various architectural requirements. If the height and width of the beam are located ,the designs allocates the right amount of steel but, in this study ,we assumed that the dimension of the beams and columns are not given.
Specificatio n and shape Area Cost The model that will be designed is a multi-stories reinforced concrete commercial building which has length of Prayer Room 6. The initial sizes of member were checked against the conditions according to serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state.
The sizes were adjusted until the conditions of serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state stated in ACI were satisfied. Every material has different properties that are simply of their own.
Experimental and numerical crack form simulations of reinforced concrete beam
Similarly, the material used in the design of the structure in this research also has different properties and strength. Table 3.
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The values of compressive strength of concrete, yield stress of reinforcement, concrete density and modulus of elasticity conforms to ACI This thesis presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the flexural behaviour of full-scale steel fibre reinforced concrete tunnel lining segments. A series of a three-point flexure tests were performed to evaluate the maximum load carrying capacity, the load-deformation behaviour and crack propagation characteristics of these segments.
The material properties of the steel fibre reinforced concrete were also studied, using both destructive and non-destructive methods. Element compression and tension tests were conducted to characterize the compressive and tensile strength properties of the SFRC. Additionally, computed tomographic scanning was conducted to analyse and estimate the density fraction and fibre orientation of the fibres in SFRC cores.
Three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to calibrate a concrete damage plasticity constitutive model and provide better understanding of the segment flexural behaviour. Advanced Search. This page is sponsored by the University Libraries.
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Privacy Copyright. Masters Theses - February Authors Carl W. Additional Files. Specimen A